The Qur’an

by Dr Salah Zaimeche, BMHC

‘He has sent down upon thee the Book with the truth, confirming what was before it, and He sent down the Torah and the Gospel aforetime, as guidance to the people, and he sent down the Salvation.’ (3:3-4).

The Prophet said:

”The best among you is he who learns the Qur’an and teaches it.”

Another hadith goes:

“He is not one of us who does not chant the Qur’an.” 1

The Qur’an is a text of 114 suwar (sing. surah) or chapters, 6,200 ayats or verses, 77,934 words, and 323,671 letters. It was revealed in Makkah and Medina and their environs — hence the characterization of its suwar as Makki or Madani — several verses at a time. 2 It has been revealed to Mohammed over a period of twenty-three years. It is approximately four-fifths the size of the New Testament, and its chapters are arranged according to length, not chronology. The longer chapters, representing the later Medina revelations, precede the shorter, earlier Makkah revelations to Mohammed. 3 Except for the first few revelations, which took the Prophet completely by surprise, each of the revelations had a situational context to which it spoke. Most of these, if not all, are known to scholars as asbab al nuzal (the situational causes of revelation). 4 From the first to last, each revelation was first impressed upon the Prophet’s memory, who, then, conveyed the revelations verbatim to his companions, who memorised and recited them in turn, and finally recorded them in a text. At the end of his life, Mohammed had about 30,000 contemporaries who had heard and memorised the Qur’an in whole or in part. Several of them could read and write and had committed the Qur’an to writing in part or in total. Certainly, writing materials were crude: leather, bones, stone or wood, cloth, and papyrus. 5 The text has been preserved absolutely intact for the past fourteen or so centuries. Not one jot or title has changed. Diacritical marks have been added and the calligraphy has been improved to facilitate its correct reading and recitation. Its parts stand today in exactly the same order in which the Prophet was instructed by the Angel to arrange them. 6

Since the revelation of the Qur’an was a cumulative process over some twenty-three years, the Prophet arranged and rearranged the revelations year by year. 7 This took place during the month of fasting, Ramadan, when the Angel Gabriel would instruct the Prophet where to intercalate and include the new passages, and the Prophet would then recite liturgically and publicly all that had been revealed up till then in the new order given to him by the Angel. For fourteen centuries, following this practice of the Prophet, Muslims by the hundreds of thousands have liturgically and publicly recited the Qur’an from memory. 8 Under Islamic law, recitation of the Qur’an in salat, the ritual of worship, may not be interrupted except by loss of ritual purity or death; but it can and should be interrupted in case of error in the recitation. In that case any other worshipper may raise his voice with the correct recitation of the misread, omitted, or mispronounced passage. 9

The Qur’an was also committed to writing. Being illiterate, the Prophet engaged a scribe to write down the revelation. Many others wrote it down as well. In the year Mohammed died, all the revelations written by the Prophet’s scribe were collected and stored with Abu Bakr until he died, then they were with Omar until he died, then they were with Hafsah, Omar’s daughter. 10 During Abu Bakr’s caliphate (632-634) the Rhida or Secession Wars took place. They were extremely bloody, especially at al-Yamamah where hundreds of the Prophet’s Companions, who memorised the Qur’an, were slain. It was shortly after the victory of Khaleed Ibn Al-Waleed over the false prophet Musaylamah (Musaylimah) at Al-Yamamah that Abu Bakr undertook to gather together, from written and oral sources, the precepts and revelations of the Qur’an, which hitherto had existed partly in scattered documents, and partly in the memories of the disciples and companions of the Prophet. 11 He was greatly urged to this undertaking by Omar who had observed with alarm the number of veteran companions of the Prophet who memorised the Qur’an who had fallen. 12 Under the third Caliph, Uthman (644-56), as many non-Peninsular Arabs and non-Arabic-speaking peoples converted to Islam and recited the Qur’an with some mistakes, the Prophet’s scribe was ordered to head a commission of the Prophet’s literate companions, of those who were most able in memory, to prepare a written text of the Qur’an. 13 This was completed within the year, and Uthman ordered that several copies to be made and distributed. 14 Except for the diacritical marks and some improvements of orthography and calligraphy, the Qur’an extant in every Muslim home around the world today, or kept and recited from memory by the millions, is identical to the material that was recited and conveyed by the Prophet to his companions fourteen centuries ago. 15

Abdel Haleem provides useful explanatory notes in the introduction to his translation of the Qur’an, and one of the best sections of this introduction relates to the stylistic features of the Qur’an. 16 The Qur’an, he explains, has its own style. It is necessary to mention some of the important features of this style. The reader should not expect the Qur’an to be arranged chronologically or by subject matter. The Qur’an may present, in the same surah (chapter,) material about the unity and grace of God, regulations and laws, stories of earlier Prophets and nations and the lessons that can be drawn from these, and descriptions of rewards and punishments on the Day of Judgement. This stylistic feature serves to reinforce the message, to persuade and to dissuade. This technique may appear to bring repetition of the same themes or stories in different surahs but, as the Qur’an is above all a book of guidance, each chapter adds to the fuller picture and to the effectiveness of the guidance. 17 Denny elaborates more on the Qur’an’s repetition and its seeming lack of structure. These dimensions have puzzled outsiders but are not regarded as defects by Muslims, because the Qur’an is first of all a Divine message that provides the most authentic glimpse of God’s inner nature. 18 The text is regarded as inimitable expressed by the phrase I’jaz Al-Qur’an. ‘No one can produce a Qur’an, no matter how skilled in language and rhetoric. This I’jaz, or “miraculous” nature, applies not only to the Qur’an’s unsurpassable language and style but also and especially to its truth in every detail. A remarkable phenomenon is the very repetition of the message’s basic themes in practically every section of the Qur’an that might be extracted for recitation. 19 Sample the text by taking ten or fifteen verses from any portion and the likelihood is that you will have gathered its essential teaching. The lack of narrative or discursive structure, which outside observers and students have sometimes regarded as its major defect, then becomes one of its central mysteries and glories. The Qur’an is entirely self-consistent and harmonious on the level of its basic teachings, but it is discontinuous and unlike other writings, especially the Bible, which it only faintly and superficially resembles at points. This is another dimension of I’jaz al-Qur’an.’ 20

Islam, through the Qur’an, teaches that God’s signs have occurred in several forms: in nature, history, and Scripture. God’s existence can be known through creation; nature contains pointers or “signs” of God, its creator and sustainer (3: 26-27). The history of the rise and fall of nations, victory and defeat, provides clear signs and lessons of God’s sovereignty and intervention in history (30: 2-9). In addition, God in His mercy determined to reveal His will for humankind through a series of messengers: “Indeed, We sent forth among every nation a Messenger, saying: ‘serve your God, and shun false gods’” (16: 36) (see also 13: 7, 15: 10, 35: 24). The verses of revelation are also called signs of God. Thus, throughout history, human beings could not only know that there is a God but also know what God desires and commands for His creatures. 21

The Qur’an is acknowledged as the fundamental code, not only of theology, but of civil and criminal jurisprudence, and the laws which regulate the actions and the property of humans are governed by the immutable sanctions of the will of God. In other words, the Qur’an is a religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal, penal code; it regulates everything, from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life; from the salvation of the soul to the health of the body; from the rights of all to those of each individual; from the interests of the individual to those of society; from morality to crime; from punishment here to that in the life to come. 22 The Qur’an includes rules concerning modesty, marriage, divorce, inheritance, feuding, intoxicants, gambling, diet, theft, murder, fornication, and adultery. Out of the 6200 verses of the Qur’an, 100 deal with ritual practices, 70 discuss personal laws, 70 civil laws, 30 penal laws, and 20 judiciary matters and testimony. 23

The Qur’an condemns debauchery and excesses of every kind (chapters 4; 17); usury (chapter 2); avarice and pride (4; 17; 18); slander and calumny (104); covetousness (4; 33); hypocrisy (4; 63); the thirsting after worldly goods (100; 102). It ordains, on the contrary, alms giving (2; 3; 30; 59; 57; 90); filial piety (4; 17; 29; 46); gratitude towards God (5); fidelity to engagements (5; 16); sincerity (6; 17; 23; 83); justice (5; 6), especially to orphans (13; 90), and without respect of persons (80); chastity and decency even in words (24; 25); the ransoming of captives (13; 90); benevolence (28); forgiveness of injuries (3; 16; 24; 43); the returning of good for evil (23); and the walking in the path of virtue, not with the view of obtaining the approbation of the world, but for being acceptable unto God (22). 24

The socioeconomic reforms of the Qur’an are in fact among its most striking features. Exploitation of the poor, weak, widows, women, orphans (4: 2; 4: 12) and slaves is vividly condemned:

‘Those who live off orphans’ property without having any right to do so will only suck up fire into their bellies, and they will be exposed to burning flame.’ (4: 10).

False contracts, bribery, abuse of women, hoarding of wealth to the exclusion of its subordination to higher ends, and usury, of course, are denounced. The Qur’an demands that Muslims pursue a path of social justice. 25

Although slavery was not abolished, slave owners were encouraged to emancipate their slaves, to permit them to earn their freedom, and to give them some of ‘God’s wealth which he has given you’ (24:33). 26 Forcing female slaves into prostitution was condemned.

Women and the family were the subjects of more wide ranging reforms affecting marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Marriage was a contract, with women entitled to their dowry (4: 4). Polygamy was restricted (4: 3), and men were commanded to treat their wives fairly and equally (4: 129). Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives. 27

The Muslim’s mission is to be servant of God and to spread God’s rule is both an individual and a community obligation. The Qur’an emphasizes the social dimension of service to God, for it is on earth and in society that God’s will is to govern and prevail. Similarly, as God had sent His prophets and revelation to the Jews and then to the Christians, He declares in the Qur’an that the Muslims now constitute the new community of believers who are to be an example to other nations:

‘Thus We made you an umma (nation) justly balanced, that you might be witness over the nations.’(2: 143). 28

Guided by the word of God and the Prophet, the Muslim community has a mission to create a moral social order:

‘You are the best community evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong’ (3: 110).

This command has influenced Muslim practice throughout the centuries, providing a rationale for political and moral activism. Again, the Prophet and the early Muslim community are seen as exemplifying this ideal, putting in place the socially just society envisioned by the Qur’an. 29

quran 1

The Language’s Beauty

The language of the Qur’an is pure Arabic. Muslims, regardless of their national language, memorize and recite the Qur’an in Arabic whether they fully understand it or not. 30 In contrast to Judaism and Christianity, whose Scriptures were not only translated into Greek and Latin at an early date but also disseminated in vernacular languages, in Islam Arabic has remained the language of the Qur’an and of religious learning. 31

Since the Qur’an is God’s book, the text is perfect, eternal, and unchangeable; which is the miracle of inimitability of the Qur’an, that its ideas, language, and style cannot be reproduced. The Qur’an proclaims that even the combined efforts of human beings and jinns could not produce a comparable text (17: 88). The Qur’an invited the opponents to produce a similar book, 32 ten suwar (chapters) like any in the Qur’an. 33 But none would rise to the challenge, despite the fact that the Arabs regarded themselves the masters of poetry and literary eloquence, and the Makkans, the very head of that pinnacle. The Qur’an reduced the challenge, asking them to produce one surah like any of the Qur’an whose short suwar had fewer than thirty words, and inviting them to bring their own gods to help. 34

Poets and men of letters from all over Arabia were called to the rescue and were promised the greatest prizes for their compositions. One of them, Al Walid Ibn Al Mughirah, listened to the Qur’an recited by the Prophet and felt admiration for it. Abu Jahl, the Makkan leader, approached him to bolster his resistance and promised him the wealth of Makkah.

Al-Walid listened again to the Qur’an and spoke out without hesitation:

‘I am the first connoisseur of poetry and letters in Arabia, and I speak with unquestionable authority. This Qur’an is not the work of humans, nor of jinn. It has a very special beauty, a very special ring. It is replete with light and beauty, surpassing everything known.’ 35

Other poets and contenders presented their compositions but could not produce anything that matched the beauty of the Qur’an.

‘Whatever their predicament or social position,’ say I and L Al-Faruqi, ‘those who heard it and apprehended its meanings fell prostrate before the divine presence it signified.’ 36

Without a doubt, the Qur’an is beautiful, indeed, the most beautiful literary composition the Arabic language has ever known. Its beauty, however, ‘is not the consequence of faith but its very cause.’ 37 Its beauty is not only admitted and shared by Muslims but also by non-Muslims conversant with the literary aesthetics of the Arabic language.
‘Instead of beauty depending upon the Divine origin and flowing out of faith in that origin, the Divine origin of the Qur’an is the reasoned consequence of its literary beauty,’ remark I and L Al-Faruqi. 38

The Makkans were fiercely opposed to the idea of forsaking their gods, to abandon their traditions and to alter their customs. They rejected the new teaching, alleging that rather than God, the source and author of the Qur’an was Mohammed or some teacher from whom the Prophet borrowed these words. 39 The so-called word of God or revelation, in their view was devoid of commanding authority. What proof did Mohammed have that it was divine? Could he produce a miracle such as Moses and Jesus had performed? 40

‘Ask thy Lord,’ they said, ‘to remove from us these mountains which hem us round and to flatten for us our land and to make rivers flow through it even as the rivers of Syria and Iraq; and to raise for us some of our forefathers, Qusayy amongst them, that we may ask them if what you say is true or false…. And ask Him to bestow on you gardens and palaces and treasures of gold and silver, that we may know how well you stand with your Lord.’ 41

‘They said that they will never believe in you unless you cause a fountain to spring forth from the earth; or create for yourself a garden of big trees and vines and cause abundant streams of water to run from one side of it to the other, or cause heaven to fall upon them in pieces as you had claimed, or bring God and His angels before them face to face, or create for yourself a beauteous palace, or ascend to heaven in front of them. “Nay,” they said to Muhammad, “we will not believe in your ascension unless you send down upon us a book confirming that you have done all these things clearly and unequivocally.” Answer: “Praised be my Lord: Have I ever claimed to be anything but a human and a messenger?”’ (17:90-93)

God also said:

‘They swore their strongest oaths that if they could witness a miracle they would believe. Answer: “Miracles are God’s prerogative, not mine.” But what would convince you [Muhammad] that they will not believe even if such miracles were to take place? Let their mind and understanding remain as confused as ever. Let them wander aimlessly in their misguidance. Indeed, unless of course God wills for them to believe, they will not believe even if We sent them the angels, caused the dead to speak to them, and placed everything squarely before them. But most of them are ignorant.’ (6:109-111)

There is no mention in the whole Qur’an of any miracle intended to support the Prophethood of Muhammad except the Qur’an, notwithstanding its acknowledge of many of the miracles performed with God’s permission by the prophets preceding Muhammad and description of the many other favours which God has bestowed upon him. What the Qur’an did report about the Arab Prophet does not violate any of the laws of nature in the least degree. 42

quran 2

Since, Haykal notes:
‘This is the logic of the Book of God and is demanded by the advent of His Prophet, what reason could have caused some of the Muslims of the past, and still cause some of them in the present, to attribute miracles to Muhammad? It must be their reading in the Qur’an of miracles performed by prophets preceding Muhammad and their jumping to the conclusion that such supernatural occurrences are necessary for prophethood. They thus believed the stories circulating about Muhammad’s miracles despite the fact that they could not find any confirmation of them in the Qur’an. They mistakenly believed that the more of them they could muster the more convinced they and their audiences would be of their faith. To compare the Arab Prophet with his predecessor prophets is to compare the incomparable. For he was the last of the prophets and the first one sent by God unto all mankind rather than unto any specific people alone. That is why God desired that the “miracle” of Muhammad be human and rational, though unmatchable by any humans or genii. This miracle is the Qur’an itself, the greatest that God permitted. He-may His glory be praised-willed that His Prophet’s mission be established by rational argument and clear proof. He willed that His religion achieve victory in the life of His prophet and that men might see in his victory the might and dominion of God. Had God willed that a material miracle force the conversion of Makkah, the miracle would have occurred and would have been mentioned in the Qur’an. But some men do not believe except in that which their reason understands and corroborates. The proper way to convince them would be to appeal to their understanding and reason. God made the Qur’an Muhammad’s convincing argument, a miracle of the “illiterate Prophet.” He willed that men’s entry into Islam and the sense of their faith in Him be dependent upon true conviction and apodeictic evidence. A religion thus founded would be worthy of the faith of all men in all times whatever their race or language.’ 43

‘Should a people,’ Haykal pursues, ‘convert to Islam today who did not need any miracle beside the Qur’an, this fact would neither detract from their faith nor from the worth of their conversion. As long as a people is not itself recipient of a revelation, it is perfectly legitimate to subject all the reports of such revelation to the closest scrutiny. That which unquestionable proof confirms is acceptable; the rest may validly be put to question. To believe in God alone without associate does not need recourse to a miracle. Nor does it need more than consideration of the nature of this universe which God created. On the other hand, to believe in the Prophethood of Muhammad who, by command of God, called men precisely unto such faith, does not need any miracles other than the Qur’an. Nor does it need any more than the presentation of the revealed text to consciousness.

Were a people to believe today in this religion without the benefit of any miracle other than the Qur’an, its faithful would belong to one of the following kinds: the man whose mind and heart does not oscillate but is guided by God directly to the object of his faith, as was the case with Abu Bakr who believed without hesitation; and, the man who does not seek his faith in the miraculous but in the natural (i.e., the created world, unlimited in space or time and running perfectly in accordance with eternal and immutable laws), and whose reason guides him from these laws of nature to the creator and fashioner thereof. Even if miracles did exist, they would constitute no problem for either kind of believer who regards them as mere signs of divine mercy. Many leaders of Islamic knowledge regard this kind of faith as indeed the highest. Some of them even prescribe that faith should not stand on a foundation of fear of God’s punishment or ambition to win His reward. They insist that it should be held purely for the sake of God and involve an actual annihilation of self in God. To Him all things belong; and so do we. To Him, we and all things shall return.’ 44

Reading List

  • M. A. S. Abdel Haleem: The Qur’an, a New Translation; Oxford University Press; 2004-5.
  • Muhammad Mustafa Azami: Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1977).
  • J. Brown: The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim; Brill, Leyden; 2007.
  • J. Davenport: An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran; J. Davy; London; 1869.
  • F. M. Denny: Introduction to Islam; Macmillan; New York; 1985.
  • J. W. Draper: A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe; Vol I; Revised edition; George Bell and Sons, London, 1875.
  • J. W. Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science; Henry S. King & Co; London; 1875.
  • W. Durant: The Age of Faith, Simon and Shuster, New York; 6th printing; 1950.
  • L. Esposito: Islam the Straight Path; Oxford University Press; 1998.
  • I.R. al-Faruqi and L. L al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas of Islam; Mc Millan Publishing Company New York, 1986.
  • F. Gabrieli: Muhammad and the Conquests of Islam; World University Library, London; 1968.
  • R. Garaudy: Comment l’Homme devint Humain; Editions J.A; 1978.
  • E. Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; vol 5; ed.W. Smith; London, 1858.
  • J.B. Glubb: The Life and Times of Muhammad; Hodder and Stoughton, London; 1970.
  • A.H. Haykal: The Life of Muhammad; tr. From Arabic by I.A. Al-Faruqi; The Islamic Book Trust, Selangor, Malaysia; 2008.
  • M. Heinen: Religion and Science in Islam, in Islam: Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non Western Cultures; Editor: H. Selin; Kluwer Academic Publishers. London, 1997. pp 861-4.
  • Ibn Hisham; Annotated recension of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat rasul Allah (The Life of the Prophet); Wustenfeld.
  • Ibn Hisham: Sirat Ibn Hisham: Biography of the Prophet as abridged by Abdus Salam M. Harun; Al-Falah Foundation; Cairo; 2000.
  • Mohammed Ibn Ishaq (151/769) and Mohammed Ibn Hisham (218/834): Sirat al-Nabiy Salat Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam; ed by M.M. Abd Al-Hamid; Cairo; 1963; vol 1.
  • Ibn Khaldun: The Muqaddimah, tr: F. Rosenthal, Bollingen series, XLIII; New York, Princeton University Press, 1958.
  • T. Al-Ismail: The Life of Muhammad; Taha Publishers; London; 1988.
  • M. Iqbal: Islam and Science; Ashgate, 2002.
  • R. Jackson: “Fifty key figures in Islam”, Taylor & Francis, 2006.
  • Hisham Ibn al-Kalbi: The Book of Idols; tr. from Arabic by N.A. Faris; Princeton University Press; 1952.
  • K.M. Khaalid; A.Hamid Eliva: Men and Women Around the Messenger; tr into English by M. M. Gemeiah et al; dar al-Manarah; Al-Mansurah; Egypt; 2003.
  • G. Le Bon: La Civilisation des Arabes, Syracuse; 1884.
  • M. Lings: Muhammad, His Life Based on the Earliest Sources; Islamic Texts Society; George Allen and Unwin; 1983.
  • S.M. Al-Mubarakpuri: The Sealed Nectar; Darussalam; Riyadh-London, 2002.
  • M. Pickthall: Introduction to The Meaning of the Glorious Qur’an; Taha; London; first printing 1930.
  • I.M. Ra’ana: Economic System Under Umar the Great, S.M. Ashraf; Lahore; 1970.
  • H.U. Rahman: A Chronology of Islamic History: 570-1000 CE; Mansell Publishing Limited; London; 1989.
  • J. Robson: Al-Bukhari: Encyclopaedia of Islam; New Series; Vol 1; pp. 1296-7.
  • B. Rogerson: The Heirs of the Prophet Muhammad; Little Brown; London; 2006.
  • A.M. As-Sallabi: Umar Ibn al-Khattab; His Life and Times; Tr. into English from Arabic edition by N.Al-Khattab; International Islamic Publishing House; Riyadh, 2007.
  • A. Salahi: Muhammad, Man and Prophet, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 2006.
  • Sayid Sulayman Nadwi: Muhammad the Ideal Prophet; tr. M. Ahmad; International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations; 2006.
  • S.P. Scott: History of the Moorish Empire; in 3 vols; The John Lippincott Company; Philadelphia; 1904.
  • R. B. Smith: Mohammed and Mohammedanism; London; Smith Elder; 1876 ed.
  • S. Spectorsky: Al-Bukhari; Dictionary of the Middle Ages; vol 2; pp. 397-9.
  • Jalal Al-Din al-Suyuti: The History of the Khalifas Who Took the Right Way; Taha; London; 1998.
  • Al-Tabari: Tarikh al-Rusul wal Muluk; Dar al-Ma’arif; 4th ed.
  • Joseph Van Ess: Islamic Perspectives: In H. Kung et al: Christianity and the World Religions; Doubleday; London; 1986.
  • Washington Irving: Mahomet and his Successors; New York and London, 1970.


  1. AI-Baghawi, Mishkat al-Masabih. trans. James Robson; Lahore, Pakistan: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf; 1965-1966, vol.2, pp. 446, 462ff.
  2. I.R. and L.L. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; p. 100.
  3. J. L. Esposito: Islam, the Straight Path; Oxford University Press; 1998; p. 17.
  4. I.R. and L.L. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; p. 100.
  5. /Ibid.
  6. Ibid; p. 99.
  7. Ibid; p. 100.
  8. Ibid; 100.
  9. Ibid.
  10. The History of the Khalifas Who Took the Right Way; by Jalal al Din as Suyuti; Taha; London; 1998; p. 67.
  11. Washington Irving: Mahomet and his Successors, New York and London; p. 273.
  12. Ibid.
  13. The Qur’an: A New Translation by M.A.S. Abdel-Haleem; op cit; p. xvi.
  14. Ibid.
  15. I.R. and L.L. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; p. 100.
  16. The Qur’an: A New Translation by M.A.S. Abdel-Haleem; op cit.
  17. The Qur’an: A New Translation by M.A.S. Abdel-Haleem; op cit.
  18. F.M. Denny: Introduction to Islam; Macmillan; New York; 1985; p. 155.
  19. An absorbing analysis is Mustansir Mir, Coherence in the Qur’an; Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1986.
  20. F.M. Denny: Introduction to Islam; op cit; p. 155.
  21. J. L. Esposito: Islam, the Straight Path; op cit; p. 17.
  22. J. Davenport: An Apology; op cit; pp. 71-2.
  23. A. Khallaf: A Concise History of Islamic legislation; (Arabic) Kuwait; 1968; pp. 28-9.
  24. J. Davenport: An Apology; op cit; pp. 77-8.
  25. J.L. Esposito: Islam, the Straight Path; op cit; p. 29.
  26. J. Davenport: An Apology; op cit; p. 79.
  27. Ibid.
  28. J. L. Esposito: Islam, the Straight Path; op cit; pp. 28-9.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Qur’an: 18: 110; 52:34.
  33. Qur’an: 11: 13.
  34. Qur’an: 17:88.
  35. Mohammed Ibn Ishaq (151/769) and Mohammed Ibn Hisham (218/834): Sirat al-Nabiy Salat Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam; ed by M.M. Abd Al-Hamid; Cairo; 1963; vol 1; pp. 174-5.
  36. I.R. and L.L. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; pp. 102-4.
  37. Ibid; pp. 102-3.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Ibid. 103-4.
  40. Qur’an 17: 90-93.
  41. A.H. Haykal: The Life of Muhammad; op cit; p. Pref to 2nd ed edition.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Ibid.