by Dr Salah Zaimeche, BMHC
On the advent of the Umayyads, in 661, the Muslim world was stretching from parts of Central Asia to modern day Libya and included all of what is commonly known as the Middle East. The Muslim navy had already asserted itself at sea, and a powerful state machinery, primarily set up by Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (634-644), ran the Muslim world.
Mu’ayiwa Ibn Abi Suyan, the first Umayyad ruler, moved the capital from Medina to Damascus. He put in place a powerful and efficiently run administered Islamic state. 1 He also reinforced the Muslim navy and military capacity, in general, besides expanding the frontiers of the Muslim state.
Muawiya’s reforms and measures were pursued by other enlightened Umayyad rulers such as Caliph Abd Al-Malik who came to power in 685. He ruled for twenty years, a period during which he consolidated the administrative structure and made Arabic the language of administration. 2 Abd Al-Malik also set up a postal system 3 using relays of horses for the transport of travellers and dispatches between Damascus and the provincial capitals. 4 He also issued the first Islamic coinage, in 695, striking the first gold dinars and silver dirhems which were purely Arabic. 5
Abd Al-Malik’s viceroy in Iraq, Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi (d. 95H/714), 6 minted silver in Al-Kufa in the following year. 7 Al-Hajjaj also dug a number of new canals and restored the large one between the Tigris and the Euphrates, besides having submerged and uncultivated lands drained and tilled. 8 Al-Hajjaj was responsible for the Muslim expansion towards modern India and Central Asia. 9
Many great architectural accomplishments date from the Umayyad period, an era of rich construction and innovative skills. Among the renowned structures are the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus, 10 and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, erected in 691 by Abd al-Malik. 11 During Umayyad rule, the Muslim armies advanced westwards into North Africa and Spain, whilst in the East, they reached the frontiers of China. 12 When ‘Amr Ibn al ‘As was once more made governor of Egypt by the first Umayyad ruler, Mua’wiya, he sent his nephew, Uqba ibn Nafi’, to bring North Africa into the Islamic fold. 13 In 670, he established a military base at Al-Qayrawan (modern Tunisia), as the early Muslims had done at Kufa and Basra. 14 Uqba died in 683, when he was ambushed at Tahudha in the Aures mountains (Algeria) by the Berbers; he and his men fought on until all were killed. 15 The recapture of North Africa for Islam was resumed after him and was led by Hassan b. Al-Nu’mãn Al-Ghassani. 16
In 85/704, ‘Abdul’aziz b. Marwan, the Governor of Egypt, appointed Musa b. Nusayr as commander in North Africa. 17 Musa, soon, would command over the Muslim entry into Spain. In 92H/711, Tariq Ibn Ziyad, Musa’s freed man, landed near the rock at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. The rock has since that time been known as “Jabal Tariq” (The Mountain of Tariq) — or in its later corrupted form, Gibraltar. 18 The Muslim and Visigoth armies met on the banks of the Guadalete River. Roderick Visigoth’s army comprised about 120,000 men; Tariq’s numbering somewhere between 12,000 and 17,000 men. 19 In the wake of the battle, the Muslims won a crushing victory. This battle, Scott insists, justly ranked:
‘With the great and decisive victories in history, considering the relative number of the combatants, the duration of the action, and the importance of its results.’ 20
Following this victory, Tariq marched on, conquering one place after the other, either after a brief siege or through direct assault. 21 The following year, Musa Ibn Nusayr, the commanding Muslim general, arrived on the scene with 10,000 fresh troops. His objectives were the fortified towns, which Tariq had avoided on his march. 22
The Muslim conquerors behaved with their usual leniency. The churches were divided between Muslims and Christians. Crown lands, or those of landowners who had fled the country, were confiscated, and Christians and Jews paid a poll-tax. 23
Towards the East, Al-Hajjaj picked two outstanding generals and sent them in different directions with three well-equipped armies. 24 Qutayba, an outstanding soldier, who had been appointed governor of Khurassan in 704, made considerable progress in the unknown territory of Central Asia. 25 Qutayba launched a series of successful campaigns and established a permanent Muslim foothold in ‘the land beyond the river (Oxus)’. He conquered, or re-conquered, places such as Balkh in 85H/705; Bukhara, Samarqand, and Khwarizm (modern Khiva) in the short period of two years (91-93H/710-712); Farghanah was conquered a year later, and Kashgar (in Chinese Turkestan) in 96/715. 26
While Qutayba Ibn Muslim was advancing into Central Asia, Muhammad Ibn Qasim, a son-in-law of Al Hajjaj, with six thousand horsemen was advancing in what is today Pakistan. 27 He advanced through southern Persia, subdued Makran, pushed on through what is now termed Baluchistan, and in 711-12, reduced Sind, the lower valley and delta of the Indus. 28 He marched against Daybul (modern Karachi), which fell after a siege. 29 After Daybul, in the hot summer of 712, Ibn Qasim captured Brahmanabad. 30 From Lower Sind, the Muslim general marched on Upper Sind, towards Punjab. Multan, the leading city, was well fortified, but was taken in 713, thus making Ibn Qasim the master of the whole of Sind and part of Punjab. 31 This was the peak of Umayyad expansion in the east. The achievement of spreading Islam in the area remained permanent. 32
The Abbasids came to power in 750 by what, Glubb says, today we should call subversive propaganda. 33 In taking over power, the Abbasid promised a new era of justice and rule according to the principles of Islam. However, soon, nepotism of the worst sort became the trademark of the dynasty. 34 The territorial expansion of Islam was completely halted under the Abbasids. The Abbasid military energies were in fact diverted from external expansion to internal civil wars, which absorbed much, if not most, of the military capabilities of the Empire. 35
On the plus side of Abbasid rule, there were wide-scale economic transformations. Other than trade; agriculture, upon which the collection of taxes depended, developed greatly. 36 Under the Abbasids, Islamic culture witnessed some bright moments. The Bayt Al-Hikma or House of Wisdom was established in Baghdad in the 9th century. It was primarily a research and translation institute; the first academy of science of its genre. It had a library, scientific equipment, a translation bureau, and an observatory. Teaching in Bayt Al-Hikma included rhetoric, logic, metaphysics and theology, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, biology, medicine, and surgery. 37
Further west, once the Ummayad Dynasty was eliminated in Syria, it found a refuge in Spain. In 755, the Umayyad Dynasty of Spain was established by Abd Errahman Ibn Muawiya. He had escaped his family massacre by the Abbasids, and after arduous efforts reached Spain, where he established the new dynasty. 38 In a long rule, which lasted from 756 to 788, Abd Errahman became known as the Falcon of Al-Andalus, the man who established strong, united Muslim rule in the Peninsula. 39 His grandson, Abd Errahman II (ruled 822-852), brought substantial changes. Al-Andalus, with its mixed population, had now become a nation, where religious toleration was observed, but where many Goths and Spaniards had nevertheless converted to Islam. 40
Another Abd Errahman III (r. 912-961), according to Burckhardt, granted Muslim Spain its period of greatest unity and finest flowering. 41 He repelled the Christian kingdoms which had been gaining strength in the north and halted the advance of the Fatimids in North Africa. 42 He built monuments of great stature, such as the famed Al-Zahra, which at some points, in his very presence at the Friday prayer at the mosque, drew criticism from the religious circle, criticism the sovereign acknowledged but did not repress. 43 One of Abd Errahman III’s early measures was to suppress all taxes not in accordance with Muslim Tradition, and by causing justice to be fairly and equally delivered. 44
There were further changes around the Mediterranean. Early in the 8th century, a Muslim army marched straight into southeast France and joined ranks with the remnants of the Muslim forces that had retreated from Poitiers/Tours, and occupied Narbonne, Carcassonne, Lyons, Arles, and Nimes. 45 Having occupied the islands of Majorca, the Muslims of Spain and those of Africa carried out a number of raids against Corsica and Sardinia in 806-808, helped in this by their co-religionists from Nice (southern France). But it was not until the end of the century that the Muslims made a serious advance into south-east France. 46
The Muslims tried to wrest the Island of Sicily from the Byzantines in the 7th century, but failed. 47 In 827, the Aghlabid ruler of Tunisia, Ziyadat Allah I, mounted a seventy-vessel expedition against that same island that was led by Assad Ibn Al-Furat. 48 From their base in Mazara on the west coast, taken in 827, the Muslim force of ten thousand men moved forward on Syracuse. 49 Palermo fell in 831, thus giving vantage point to the Muslims for further conquest: Messina fell in 843, Enna in 859, Syracuse, after a nine month siege, was taken in 878. 50 A majority of the inhabitants kept their Christian religious allegiance and, in line with Islamic practice, were accorded the status of protected minorities (dhimmis). This meant, that in return for the payment of a poll tax (jizya) and accepting certain regulations, they were guaranteed the safety of their persons and property, and the freedom to follow freely their own religion and maintain the institutions of their religious community. 51 The same status was granted to the small Jewish community of the island, which seems to have been concentrated mainly in the coastal towns. 52
In the east, it was a Turk, Mahmud of Ghazna (d. 1030), who resumed the Muslim advance, principally in India. He had taken part in all of his father’s campaigns against the Hindus and became ruler of the Kingdom of Ghazna (including Afghanistan and Northern Persia) at the age of about twenty-seven. 53 A brave and resourceful general, during thirty years of constant warfare, Mahmud never suffered defeat. He was a cultured monarch and by his generosity attracted great poets and scholars to his court, making Ghazni the rival of Baghdad in the splendour of the edifices and the number of men of culture and learning such as Al-Biruni (973-c.1050) and the historian Al-Utbi (d. 1036). 54
In 1029, shortly before the death of Mahmud, from the steppes of eastern Asia, there appeared a tribe of Turkmen, the Ghuzz, who settled in the Bukhara region, where they embraced Sunni Islam. 55 The chiefs of the Ghuzz were members of the Seljuk family. A grandson of Seljuk, Tughril, ventured with his brother as far as Khurasan, and in 1037, the two brothers wrested Merw and Nyshapur from Ghaznavid hands, whilst Balkh, Jurjan, Tabaristan and Khwarizm, as well as Hamadan, Ray and Ispahan were speedily added. 56
Meanwhile, further west, in the Abbasid realm, the Buwaihid princes threatened the Caliph. In 1044, Caliph Al-Qaim wrote to Tughril Beg, the Seljuk leader, who was in Ray, to arrange peace between him and the Buwaihid prince of Baghdad. 57 On December 18, 1055, Tughril Beg at the head of his armies stood at the gate of Baghdad. 58
The advent of the Seljuk Turks ushered a new and notable era in the history of Islam, Hitti correctly notes. 59 At their appearance from the east in the early part of the 11th century, the Caliph held but a shadow of his former power and the Islamic land had been almost entirely dismembered. 60 The Seljuks entered this chaotic realm, and not only would they restore Islamic unity and strength, they also constituted the main force that fought the Crusaders at a time of general Muslim decline and divisions. Without that Seljuk core, Ross Burns remarks, the invasion would have been a simple push-over by the outside Crusader forces. 61
Meanwhile in the West, in Spain, the last Umayyad ruler, Al-Hakem II, died in 976 after a reign of fifteen years and was succeeded by his infant son, Hisham. Due to Hisham’s young age, Mohammed Ibn Abi Amir became vizier, and soon rose to power. In 981, the new vizier invaded Leon and defeated the Christians at Rueda. On his return, he assumed the title of Al-Mansur, the Victorious, by which he was called from then on. Al-Mansur established his authority in the name of Hisham. 62 Al-Mansur’s deeds were exemplary. He extended the Cordova mosque, built another palace, Al-Zahira, on the banks of the Wadi Al-kebir (Guadalquivir), and then spent the rest of his rule leading his armies into battle against the Christians in the north, two expeditions each year, even taking Santiago de Compostela on his fiftieth expedition. 63 On 6th July, 985, he sacked the great city of Barcelona; in 988, he overran Leon, taking the capital by assault, and in his twenty-five year rule, he reduced the Christian kingdoms to trembling subservience. 64 In the year 1002, during his fifty-second military expedition, Al-Mansur died.
Al-Mansur was followed by the inept rule of his son. After six years, Muslim Spain entered a period of chaos. Civil war erupted throughout the territory, which soon disintegrated into thirty or so independent states. This was the era of the Reyes of Taifas (1009-1091). 65 The Reyes of Taifas, with rare exceptions, such as Al-Ma’mun of Toledo, were dissolute, and fought each other, often inviting Christian assistance in their wars. Intrigues and civil wars amongst Muslim rulers emboldened Christian intervention. 66 In 1085, Toledo fell to Alfonso VI of Castile, 67 a victory achieved with the help of Al-Mu’tamid of Seville. 68 Al-Mu’tamid, himself, soon found himself threatened by the Christians. Swallowing his scruples, he crossed into North Africa and persuaded Yusuf Ibn-Tashfin, the leader of the Berber Almoravids, to intervene. 69 The Almoravids, who had just established their rule in Morocco responded. In 1086, manoeuvring en masse to the sound of drums, they inflicted on the Christian knights a shattering defeat at Sagrajas near Bajadoz. 70 Falling under renewed Christian threats the Muslim princes called again upon Ibn Tashfin, who landed in the Peninsula in 1088, then again in 1090. On the final occasion, he decided to take in charge the destinies of the country by himself, removing all princelings, and putting Muslim Spain under Almoravid control. 71
After two or so centuries, Muslim rule in Sicily ended in the 11th century. The final phase of Muslim Sicily began early in the century with open warfare between the Muslims. 72 Fully aware of such internal quarrels among the Sicilian Muslims, the Christians, through the Normans, resolved to retake the island. 73 In 1061 Roger I succeeded in capturing Messina, Palermo in 1071, and Syracuse in 1085. 74 By 1091, the conquest of the Island was complete. Muslim communities survived in Sicily for more than two centuries after the Norman conquest. 75 Then, early in the 14th century, the Muslim presence on the Island was terminated.
To the East, in 902 and then 904, there were uprisings in Syria, where a claimant to the Imamate, Sa’id Ibn Ahmad, had assumed the name of Ubaidulla. He sought to join a preacher, Abu Abdullah, travelling in the south to Sijilmasa (North Africa.) The latter had been very active in the missionary work, and his promise of the imminent arrival of the Mahdi, brought him local support of the Kutama Berbers that helped him overthrow the century-old Tunisian Aghlabid Dynasty in 909, and capture Al-Qayrawan. 76 This led to the establishment of a new dynasty: the Fatimid, claiming descent from Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter. 77 At its peak, the Fatimid Empire (909-1171) included North Africa, Sicily, the Red Sea Coast of Africa, Hijaz (including Makkah and Medina), Yemen, Palestine and Syria.
From the departure of the Fatimids to Egypt in 972 until 1054, North Africa enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity. 78 However, when the North Africans broke their ties with the Fatimids, the latter, in 1057, unleashed the unruly Banu Hilal on the region. 79 In wave after wave, the Banu Hilal warriors, followed by their families and herds, swept over Cyrenaica and Tripolitania into southern Tunisia, drawing others behind them, burning and destroying everything on their way. 80 The invaders spread havoc. The towns and cities were burnt down; the countryside devastated; the whole of Ifriqya was turned from its once prosperous condition into a vast empty and arid zone, only suitable for nomads and shepherds. 81
Chaos in North Africa came on top of Christian gains in Sicily and Spain. These gains and the awareness of divisions amongst Muslims emboldened Western Christendom. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the Crusades in the East.
Select Reading List
- Al-Baladhuri: Kitab Futuh al-Buldan; tr. by P.K. Hitti as The Origins of the Islamic State; Columbia University; New York; 1916.
- R. Burns: Damascus, A History, Routledge; London; 2005.
- I.R. al-Faruqi and L.L al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas of Islam; Mc Millan Publishing Company New York, 1986.
- J. Glubb: A Short History of the Arab Peoples; Hodder and Stoughton, 1969.
- P.K. Hitti: History of the Arab People; MacMillan and Co. Ltd; London; 1937.
- Ibn Al-Athir: Kitab Al-Kamil; ed K.J. Tornberg; 12 vols; Leiden; 1851-72.
- Ibn Al-Idhari: Al-Bayan Al-Maghrib fi Akhbar Al-Maghrib; ed R. Dozy; Leyden; 1848.
- S.M. Ikram: Muslim Civilisation in India; ed by A.T. Embree; Columbia University Press; New York; 1964.
- S. Khuda Bukhsh: The Orient Under the Caliphs; Calcuta; 1920.
- Al-Maqqari: Nafh Al-Tib; tr. by P. De Gayangos: The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain; 2 vols; The Oriental Translation Fund; London, 1840-3; vol 1; Appendix.
- H.U. Rahman: A Chronology of Islamic History: 570-1000 CE; Mansell Publishing Limited; London; 1989.
- S and N. Ronart: Concise Encyclopaedia of Arabic civilization; The Arab West; Djambatan; Amsterdam; 1966.
- H. Saladin: Tunis et Kairouan; Librairie Renouard; Paris; 1908.
- J.J. Saunders: Aspects of the Crusades, University of Canterbury, 1962.
- S.P. Scott: History of the Moorsih Empire; The John Lippincott Library, Philadelphia; 1904; Vol 1.
- A.D. Taha: The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain; Routledge; London; 1989.
- A. Thomson and M.A. Rahim: Islam in Andalus; Ta Ha Publishers Ltd; London; 1996.
- Al-‘Umari: Al-Ta’arif bi Al-Mustalah Al-Sharif; Cairo; 1312 H.
- A.A. Vasiliev: The Struggle with the Saracens (867-1057): in The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol IV: Edited by J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte; Z.N. Brooke, 1923.
- Yaqut Al-Hamawi: Mu’ajam Al-Buldan; ed. F. Wustenfeld. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1866-70. vol iv.
- S. Khuda Bukhsh: The Orient Under the Caliphs; Calcuta; 1920; p. 193. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History of the Arab People; MacMillan and Co. Ltd; London; 1937; p. 217. ↩
- Al-‘Umari: Al-Ta’arif bi Al-Mustalah Al-Sharif; Cairo; 1312 H; p. 185. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 218. ↩
- Al-Baladhuri: Kitab Futuh al-Buldan; tr by P.K. Hitti as The Origins of the Islamic State; Columbia University; New York; 1916; p. 240. ↩
- On Al-Hajjaj, see Ibn Al-Athir: Kitab Al-Kamil; ed K.J. Tornberg; 12 vols; Leiden; 1851-72. vol iv. ↩
- Yaqut Al-Hamawi: Mu’ajam Al-Buldan; ed. F. Wustenfeld. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1866-70. vol iv; p. 886. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 219. ↩
- Khuda Bukhsh: The Orient; op cit; 204. ↩
- Washington Irving: Mahomet and his Successors; The University of Wisconsin Press; Madison; 1970; p. 504. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 221. ↩
- A.D. Taha: The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain; Routledge; London; 1989; p. 19. ↩
- On the Muslim entry into North Africa, See Ibn Al-Idhari: Al-Bayan Al-Maghrib fi Akhbar Al-Maghrib; ed R. Dozy; Leyden; 1848. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History of the Arab Peoples; Hodder and Stoughton, 1969; pp. 72-3. ↩
- A.D. Taha: The Muslim Conquest; op cit; p. 66. ↩
- Ibn Al-Idhari: Al-Bayan, op cit, vol 1; p. 39. Al-Nuwairi: Nihayat, op cit, vol xxii; par t2; p. 22. ↩
- Ibn Idhari: Al-Bayan, op cit, vol 1; p. 40. ↩
- S.P. Scott: History of the Moorsih Empire; The John Lippincott Library, Philadelphia; Vol 1; p.249. ↩
- A. Thomson and M. A. Rahim: Islam in Andalus; Ta Ha Publishers Ltd; London; 1996; p.14. ↩
- S.P. Scott: History; op cit; Vol 1; p.232. ↩
- Al-Maqqari: Nafh Al-Tib; tr. by P. De Gayangos: The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain; 2 vols; The Oriental Translation Fund; London, 1840-3; vol 1; Appendix, xiviii. ↩
- I.R. al-Faruqi and L.L al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas of Islam; Mc Millan Publishing Company New York, 1986; p. 217. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; pp. 80-1. ↩
- Ibid; P. K. Hitti: History; op cit; pp. 208-9. ↩
- Al-Baladhuri: Kitab Futuh al-Buldan; op cit; p.423. ↩
- I. Rand LL. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; p. 216. ↩
- S.M. Ikram: Muslim Civilisation in India; ed by A.T. Embree; Columbia University Press; New York; 1964.; p. 7. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 210. ↩
- S.M. Ikram: Muslim Civilisation in India; op cit; p. 7. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- Ibid; p. 8. ↩
- H.U. Rahman: A Chronology of Islamic History: 570-1000 CE; Mansell Publishing Limited; London; 1989; p. 67. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; p. 95. ↩
- H. Kennedy: The Early Abbasid Caliphate; Croom Helm; London; 1981; p. 52. ↩
- J. Lassner: The Shaping of Abbasid Rule; Princeton University Press; 1980; p. 39. ↩
- Al-Istakhri: Al-Massalik wal-Mamlik; Leyden; 1870. p 85: Ibn Hawqal: Al-Massalik wal Mamalik; Leyden; 1873; p. 166. ↩
- F.B. Artz: The Mind of the Middle Ages; op cit; p. 151. ↩
- A. Thomson; M.A. Rahim: Islam in Andalus; op cit; p. 32. ↩
- Ibid; pp. 32-3. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; p. 148. ↩
- T. Burckhardt: Moorish Culture in Spain, George Allen & Unwin, London; 1972; p. 34. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- A. Thomson and M. A. Rahim: Islam in Andalus; op cit; p. 59. ↩
- In Al-Maqqari: Nafh Al-Tib; op cit; vol I; Appendix; xlvii ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 501. ↩
- I. Rand LL. Al-Faruqi: The Cultural Atlas; op cit; p. 217. ↩
- A.L. Udovitch: Islamic Sicily; in Dictionary of the Middle Ages; J.R. Strayer Editor in Chief; Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York; 1980 ff; Vol 11; pp. 261-3; p.261. ↩
- Ibn Al-Idhari: Al-Bayan al-Maghrib; op cit; vol 1; p. 95. ↩
- Ibn Al-Athir: Kamil; op cit; vol vi; p. 236.
Al-Idrisi: Min Kitab Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq Al-Afaq; ed. M. Amari and C. Schiaparelli; Roma; 1878; p. 32. ↩
- Ibn Al-Athir: Kamil; op cit; vol vii; p. 31. ↩
- A.L. Udovitch: Islamic Sicily; op cit; p.262. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- S.M. Ikram: Muslim Civilisation in India; Columbia University Press; New York; 1964; p. 24. ↩
- Ibid; p. 26. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 474. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; p. 129. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 474. ↩
- Ibid; p. 473. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- R. Burns: Damascus, A History, Routledge; London; 2005; p. 142. ↩
- A. Thomson; M. A. Rahim: Islam in Andalus; op cit; p. 69. ↩
- Ibid; p. 69 p. 74. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; p. 150. ↩
- J. Read: The Moors in Spain and Portugal, Faber and Faber, London, 1974. D. Wasserstein: The Rise and Fall of the Party Kings; Princeton University Press; 1985. ↩
- J.J. Saunders: Aspects of the Crusades, University of Canterbury, 1962. p.19. ↩
- Ibid. p. 19. ↩
- W. Durant: The Age of Faith, op cit; chap 19. p. 460. ↩
- J. Read: The Moors in Spain and Portugal; op cit; p. 133. ↩
- For more on the Almoravids in Spain, see R. Dozy: Spanish Islam; J. Read: The Moors in Spain and Portugal; S.P. Scott: History, etc. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- See Ibn Al-Athir: Kamil; op cit; vol viii. ↩
- A.A. Vasiliev: The Struggle with the Saracens (867-1057): in The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol IV: Edited by J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte; Z.N. Brooke, 1923; p.150. ↩
- P.K. Hitti: History; op cit; p. 606. ↩
- A.L. Udovitch: Islamic Sicily; op cit; p.263. ↩
- H.U. Rahman: A Chronology; op cit; p. 144. ↩
- J. Glubb: A Short History; op cit; p. 142. ↩
- Ibid; p. 146. ↩
- H. Saladin: Tunis et Kairouan; Librairie Renouard; Paris; 1908; p. 107. ↩
- S and N. Ronart: Concise Encyclopaedia of Arabic civilization; The Arab West; Djambatan; Amsterdam; 1966; p. 398. ↩
- H. Saladin: Tunis et Kairouan; op cit; p. 107. ↩